新编剑桥商务英语高级BECU12-17,24,27整理

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新编剑桥商务英语高级BECU12-17,24,27整理

新编剑桥商务英语学生用书(高级第2版)
新编剑桥商务英语学生用书(高级第2版)

Unit12advertising 广告 aimed 旨在 awareness 意识 channel 渠道 loyalty 忠诚 maturity成熟 medium 中小型 tactics 策略、战略 target 目标 trial 尝试The basic idea behind the 'marketing concept' - that you make what you can sell rather than sell what you make - does not mean that your product will sell all by itself. Even a good, attractively-priced product that clearly satisfies a need has to be made known to its target customers. 市场营销的基本观点是—做你可以卖的, 而不是卖你做的—并不意味着您的产品 将全部自动售出。

即使是一个很好的、价格诱人的、且显然满足于某一需求的产 品,也必须要让它的目标客户知晓。

Sales promotions can also be aimed at distributors, dealers and retailers, to encourage them to stock new items or larger quantities, or to encourage off-season buying, or the stocking of items related to an existing product. 促销也可以针对分销商、经销商和零售商,鼓励他们去购买新的商品或更大的数 量,或鼓励淡季购买,或商品的存储与现存的产品有关的项目。

1. advertising 广 告 — competitors 竞 争 对 手 — publicity 宣 传 — sales promotion 促销 2. advertising agency 广告代理 — advertising campaign 广告活动 — media plan 媒体计划 — word-of-mouth advertising 口头广告 3. advertising manager 广 告 经 理 — brand-switcher 经 常 换 品 牌 的 人 — marketing manager 营销经理 — sales rep 销售代表BEC 整理 1 / 11

4. after-sales service 售后服务 — guarantee 保修 — optional features 选择性功 能— points of sale 销售地点 5. brand awareness 品牌意识— brand loyalty 品牌忠诚— brand name 品牌名brand preference 品牌偏好 6. competitions 竞 争 — coupons 优 惠 券 — line-stretching 产品线延伸 7. credit terms 信贷条款— discount 折扣— list price 价目表— packaging 包装 8. decline 下降— growth 成长— introduction 引进— product improvement 产品 改进 9. focus group interviews 焦点团体访谈— internal research 内部研究— media plan 媒介计划— questionnaire 调查问卷 10. packaging 包装 — place 地方— product 产品— promotion 促销 free samples 免 费 样 品 —Unit13Bookkeeping 簿记 Accounting 会计、会计学 managerial accounting 管理会计 cost accounting 成本会计 assets 资产 liabilities 负债 turnover 营业额 shareholders (GB) or stockholders (US) 股东 depreciation (GB) or amortization (US) 折旧 creditors (GB) or accounts payable (US) 债权人 应付账额 debtors (GB) or accounts receivable (US) 债务人 应收账额 overheads (GB) or overhead (US) 一般管理费用 earnings or income 收入 stock (GB) or inventory (US) 存储 存货 tax accounting 税务会计 auditing 牢记 “creative accounting” 违法伪造会计BEC 整理2 / 11

In times of inflation, this understates the value of appreciating assets such as land, but overstates profits as it does not record the replacement cost of plant or stock. 在通货膨胀时期,这低估了资产升值的价值,如土地的价值,但高估了利润,因 为它没有记录的工厂或股票的替代成本Part of the profit goes to the government in taxation, part is usually distributed to shareholders (stockholders) as a dividend and part is retained by the company. 利润的一部分以税收的形式给了政府,一部分是常常被分配给股东作为股息,还 有一部分是被公司留存。

Companies also have intangible assets, whose value is difficult to quantify or turn into cash, such as goodwill, patents, copyrights and trade marks. 公司还拥有无形资产,其价值是难以量化或换算成现金,如商誉、专利、版权及 商标。

the basic accounting equation :Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity基本会计等式:资产=负债+所有者权益Unit14cash card 借记卡 credit card 信用卡 home banking 家庭银行 standing order or direct debit 直接借记 current account (GB) or checking account (US) 活期存折 deposit account (GB) or time or notice account (US) 储蓄存款 cash dispenser (GB) or ATM (automated teller machine) (US) 自动取款机 loan 贷款 mortgage 抵押 overdraft 透支BEC 整理3 / 11

Commercial or retail banks are businesses that trade in money. They receive and hold deposits, pay money according to customers’ instruction, lend money, offer investment advice, exchange foreign currencies and so on. 商业或零售银行是货币交易的企业。

他们接受和留存存款, 根据客户的指令付钱、 借出钱、提供投资建议、兑换外币等。

Investment banks, often called merchant banks in Britain, raise funds for industry on the various financial markets, finance international trade, issue and underwrite securities, deal with takeovers and mergers, and issue government bonds. 投资银行在英国经常被称为商业银行,为各种金融市场的工业筹集资金,资助国 际贸易,发行和认购证券,涉及收购与合并和发行国债。

Banks lend to blue chip borrowers (very safe large companies) at the base rate or the prime rate; all other borrowers pay more, depending on their credit standing (or credit rating, or creditworthiness): the leader’s estimation of their present and future solvency. 银行会以最基本利率或最优惠利率借钱给蓝筹借款人(非常安全的大公司) ;其 他所有的借款人支付利率的多少取决于他自己的信贷信誉(或信贷评级,或信用 可靠性) :出借人对于他们现在及未来偿付能力的估计。

Furthermore, banks are not obliged to deposit any of their Eurocurrency assets at 0% interest with the central bank, which means that they can usually offer better rates to borrowers and depositors than in the home country. 此外,银行没有义务以零利率把钱存入央行,这意味着,他们通常可以提供更好 的价格给借款人和存款人,比在本国的借存款更好的利率。

deposit 存款 foreign currencies 外币 yield 产量、收益BEC 整理liquidity 流动性 maturity 到期日 underwrite 包销4 / 11

takeover 收购 merger 合并 stockbrooking 证券经纪 portfolio management 管理投资组合 deregulation 放松管制conglomerate 企业集团 blue chip 蓝筹 solvency 偿债能力 collateral 抵押品charge interest 收取利息 pay interest 支付利息 do business 做生意 exchange currencies 兑换货币 issue bonds 发行债券 make loans 做贷款 make profits 赚取利润offer loans 提供贷款 offer advice 提供咨询 raise interest 加息 receive deposits 接受存款 underwrite security issues 承销安全问 题unit15A limited company is a legal entity separate from its owners and is only liable for the amount of capital that has been invested in it. If a limited company goes bankrupt, it is wound up and its assets are liquidated (i.e. sold) to pay the debts. 一个有限责任公司是一个与其所有者相对独立的法人实体, 他只对已经投资的资 金负责。

如果一个有限责任公司破产,被关闭,他的资产被清算(卖出)来支付 债务。

Companies generally use an investment bank to underwrite the issue, i.e. to guarantee to purchase all the securities at an agreed price on a certain day, if they cannot be sold to the public. 公司一般采用投资银行来认购债券, 也就是保证买所有的债券在某个既定的一天 以既定的价格购买,如果他们不能向公众出售所有证券。

BEC 整理 5 / 11

liability 责任 creditor 债权人 bankrupt=insolvent 破产 assets 资产 liquidate 清算 liabilities 负债put up capital 投入资金 venture capital 风险资本 founders 创办人 premises 前提 underwrite 包销 dividend 股息blue chip 蓝筹股 defensive stock 防御性股票 growth stock 增长性股票 insider share-dealing 内部交易 institutional investors 机构投资者mutual fund 共有基金 market-maker 准备上市的股票的经纪 人 portfolio 投资组合 stockbroker 股票经纪人1. annual report 年 度 报 告 — external auditors 外 聘 核 审 计 师 — financial statements 财务报表— stockbroker 股票经纪人 2. blue chip 蓝筹股— defensive stock 防御性股票— growth stock 成长型股票— rights issue 增股 3. bonus issue 红 利 发 行 — dividend 股 利 — over-the-counter 场 外 交 易 — shareholder 股东 4. creditor 债权人— market-maker 准备上市的股票的经纪人— shareholder 股 东—stockbroker 股票经纪人 5. debt 债务— equity 股票— share 股票— stock 股票 6. face value 票面价值– market value 市场价值– nominal value 面值– par value 面 值 7. float 浮动— liquidation 清算— share issue 发行股票— underwriter 认购 8. institutional investor 机构投资者— insurance company 保险公司— liabilities 负债—pension fund 养老保险基金 9. mutual fund 共同基金— portfolio 投资组合— risk 风险— underwriter 认购BEC 整理 6 / 11

unit16investors 投资者 issuing bonds 发行债券 principal 校长、本金 maturity 到期日 pension funds 养老金 buy-and-hold investors 长期投资者 non-payment 不付钱 price appreciation 升值 price depreciation 贬值 capital gains 资本收益More and more companies now issue their own bonds rather than borrow from banks, because this is often cheaper: the market may be a better judge of the firm’s creditworthiness than a bank, i.e. it may lend money at a lower interest rate. This is evidently not a good thing for the banks, which now have to lend large amounts of money to borrowers that are much less secure than blue chip companies. 越来越多的公司发行自己的债券,而不是向银行借款,因为这样更便宜:市场可 能是一个比银行更好的信誉等级评价, 也就是, 它可以以一个更低的利率借出钱。

对银行来说,这显然不是一件好事,现在银行不得不借出大量的钱给那些不比蓝 筹公司那么安全的借款人。

In other words, a company deducts its interest payments from its profits before paying tax, whereas dividends are paid out of already-taxed profits. 换句话说, 公司在纳税前从利润中扣除其支付的利息, 已征税的利润来支付股息。

On the other hand, increasing debt increases financial risk: bond interest has to be paid, even in a year without any profits from which to deduct it, and the principal has to be repaid when the debt matures, whereas companies are not obliged to pay dividends or repay share capital. 另一方面,渐增的债务增加了金融风险:债券利息的支付,即使在一年内,扣除 它后没有任何利润,当债务到期时当事人必须偿还,然而公司没有义务支付股息 或偿还股本。

BEC 整理 7 / 11

equity financing 股权融资 issuing shares 发行股票 debt financing 债务融资 issuing bonds 发债 par 票面的=nominal=face value (100%)bearer certificate 承载证书 liquid 自由兑换 yield 收益 coupon 息票the rate of interest paid by a fixed interest security 固定收益证券Unit17futures 期货 options 期权 commodities 日用品 derivatives: 金融衍生品 hedging 套期保值 speculation 投机 premium 议价,升水 discount 贴水 spot market 现货市场 futures marker 期货市场Yet there are also futures markets on which contracts can be made to buy and sell commodities, currencies, and various financial assets, at a future date (e.g. three, six or nine months ahead), but with the price fixed at the time of the deal. 然而,也有期货市场的合约可以购买和出售商品,货币和各种金融资产在未来某 个日期(如三个月,六个月或九个月之后) ,但是按照交易时既定的价格交易。

Futures, options and other derivatives exist in order that companies and individuals may attempt to diminish the effects of, or profit from, future changes in commodity and asset prices, exchange rates, interest rates, and so on. 期货,期权和其他金融衍生的存在是为了公司和个人尝试去减少影响,或,从商 品和资产价格、汇率、利率的未来变化中获得利润。

BEC 整理8 / 11

Alternatively, you can write a put option giving someone else the right to sell the shares at 100: if the market price remains above 100, no one will exercise the option, so you earn the premium. 也许,你可以卖一个看跌期权,给别人 100 股这个权利:如果市场价格仍然保持 在 100 以上,没有人会行使这个权,因此你赚取了升水。

appreciate – depreciate 升值 - 贬值 call – put 看涨 – 看跌 discount – premium 贴水 – 升水 drought – flood 干旱 – 洪水 floating – fixed 浮动 - -固定 hedging – speculation 对冲 – 投机 spot market – futures market 现货市场 - 期货市场 strike price – market price 敲定价格 - 市场价格unit24Theoretically, in the absence of speculation, exchange rates should reflect purchasing power parity - the cost of a given selection of goods and services in different countries. 从理论上讲,在没有投机的情况下,汇率会反映购买力平价 — 选择在不同国家 的货物和服务的成本。

Proponents of floating exchange rates, such as Milton Friedman, argued that currencies would automatically establish stable exchange rates, which would reflect economic realities more precisely than calculations by central bank officials. 浮动汇率的支持者如米尔顿·弗里德曼,认为货币会自动建立稳定的汇率,这比 央行官员所反映经济现实更为精确。

BEC 整理 9 / 11

This has led to the current situation in which 95% of the world's currency transactions are unrelated to transactions in goods but are purely speculative. 这导致了世界上 95%的货币交易与商品交易无关,只是纯粹的投机的现实状况。

adjust 调整 convert 转换、兑换 abolish 取消、废除 suspend 暂停 fluctuate 波动diverge 分歧、偏离 appreciate 升值 establish 建立 peg 钉 revalue 再评估Unit27balance of trade 贸易差额 balance of payments 收支平衡 surplus 顺差 deficit 赤字 dumping 倾销 protectionism 保护主义 tariffs 关税 quotas 配额The majority of economists believe in the comparative cost principle, which proposes that all nations will raise their living standards and real income if they specialize in the production of those goods and services in which they have the highest relative productivity. 大多数经济学家主张相对成本原则, 他们建议所有国家通过专注于他们具有高产能的商品和服 务,来提高他们的生活水平和实际收入。

BEC 整理10 / 11

Democratic government do, which often encourages them to impose tariffs and quotas in order to protect what they see as strategic industries – notably agriculture – without which the country would be in danger if there was a war, as well as other jobs. 民主政府经常鼓励征收关税和配额, 为了保护他们认为具有战略意义的产业—特别是农业—如 果有战争,国家没有农业将会很危险,并不亚于其他工作。

With tariffs, it is impossible to know the quantity that will be imported, because prices might be elastic. 关于关税,它是不可能知道将要进口的数量,因为价格可能有弹性。

BEC 整理11 / 11