时间:2015-07-13 19:53:42 贡献者:漫江zry奋楫

导读:Over the past decade, voluntourism and short-term volunteering have exploded in popularity. They seem to answer many of the classic criticisms of tourism and, unlike traditional international volunteering, let us go when and where we want. In short,


Over the past decade, voluntourism and short-term volunteering have exploded in popularity. They seem to answer many of the classic criticisms of tourism and, unlike traditional international volunteering, let us go when and where we want. In short, this new type of trip seems too good to be true. In many cases it is. Volunteering causes unemployment. Why pay someone to do a job when someone else will do it for free? I visited one school in Malawi where the head teacher took Western volunteers because they were cheaper than paying local staff. Sure, there are some projects that will not get done without volunteers —but you still need to ask why you are needed, and whether the work would not be better done by a paid local person. Maybe the best contribution you could make would be to help pay that person. Often volunteers want to do what they do not do at home. If they work in an office they want to dig a well or teach kids. But if you do not know how to do something in your own country, how will you know how to do it in someone else's? Voluntourism can encourage Westerners to see development as "simple", as something that comes from outsiders (rather than local people and governments) and that can be done by unskilled, but enthusiastic Westerners. But if development was that simple it would all have been sorted out long ago—and worse still, the "development is simple" message reduces the need for political change and the support for long-term sustainable solutions. Instead, voluntourism and short-term volunteering tend to operate outside of wider development policy and thinking. Despite good intentions, projects that operate in this way may not be really helpful—for example, a classroom gets built when what is really needed is a health education program. If tourists want to contribute, then they need to work together with development agencies and governments. Despite these criticisms, the answer is not to abandon all forms of volunteering. Instead, we should support those organizations that address these criticisms, operate in a moral way and do not solely put in the first place the sudden thoughts of the tourist. 1. Which of the following statements is true according to this passage? A. Voluntourism can let us go anywhere for free.

B. Voluntourism makes lots of people out of work. C. Volunteers should be unskilled people. D. Voluntourism always operates in really helpful ways.2.It can be concluded from the second paragraph that ________________. A. people prefer to hire someone for free. B. volunteers get less paid than local staff. C. a paid person will do better than a unpaid person. D. voluntary work benefits the society a lot.3.Why do people prefer to employ volunteers rather than local staff? A. Because they are cheaper than local staff. B. Because they do a better job than local people. C. Because they have special skills. D. Because they are more enthusiastic in their work.4.Which of the following statements is NOT a disadvantage of volunteering? A. Volunteers might be unskilled despite their enthusiasm. B. Voluntourism can mislead people in their understanding of development. C. Voluntourism might be operated in unhelpful ways. D. Voluntourism has become the target of many criticisms.5.What can you infer from the last paragraph? A. We had better abandon volunteering.

B. Volunteering should not be criticized. C. Volunteering should be operated in a moral way. D. The thought about volunteering should be put in the first place. Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage or dialog. While there is not just one "right" reason to volunteer abroad, it is important to realize that different motivations can lead to different types of service. We warn against wanting "solve other people's problems", as too often this attitude has had negative effects on communities and has made local people powerless. Thus, before starting your volunteering program, you had better make yourself clear about the following points. Duration and Time of Year Many of the international programs have set dates, while others allow volunteers to determine their own start and end dates. The shorter-term (1- to 3-week) opportunities often involve a specific project such as building a medical clinic or repairing roads. In longer-term programs, volunteers live and work side-by-side with the local people, virtually becoming a part of the local community and its rhythms of daily life. Type of Volunteer Organization You may wish to know if the program you are considering is a government agency, a for-profit agency, or a non-profit agency. You may want to ask if the organization is faith-based or secular. In any case, you will want to ensure that your values and objectives are in line with those of your sending and host organizations. A volunteer organization might or might not contribute part of your program fee to the long-term sustainability of a community and its resources. You may want to know how their funds are used. If you speak with returned volunteers and agency representatives, you can often get a clear picture of the type of work you will be doing and the nature of the organization you will be representing. Skills

Many of the opportunities you will find on the website do not require volunteers to have specific skills. A willing spirit and an open mind are often all that is required to assist in the work initiated by local community members. However, if you have professional experience in a certain field, you may want to choose a program that will allow you to put your skills to use. On the other hand, if you are hoping to gain new skills or explore new career options, consider programs that provide the greatest opportunities for hands-on work in your area of interest. It is never too late to acquire new skills! 6. The word "secular" most probably means ________________. A. concerned with spiritual or religious affairs B. not connected with a church or religion C. governed by or done according to reason D. consistently reliable7.If you want to get more information about a volunteering organization, you should ________________. A. ask you friends for help B. speak with returned volunteers C. write to the leader of the volunteering organization D. search information from the organization's website8.According to the passage, what is required of a volunteer? A. Several specific skills. B. Relevant work experience. C. A willing spirit and an open mind. D. A warm heart and much spare time.9.Which of the following is NOT a factor to consider in choosing a program?

A. Start and end date of the program. B. Types of volunteer organization. C. The skills you should have. D. The language you should learn.10. Which of the following statements is true? A. Motivations influence the types of volunteering service. B. Volunteers have no right to decide the volunteering service duration. C. All volunteer organizations should be non-profit agencies. D. Volunteers are required to have specific skills. Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage or dialog. American teens are setting an example for their parents through their volunteer work, according to a new survey by Harris Interactive. The random national telephone survey released this week found that more teens volunteer to support a charitable cause —56 per cent—than have a part-time job—39 per cent. Parents or guardians said 82 per cent of the teens in their lives do something to support charitable causes, including volunteering, appeal to others to devote to a cause, wearing a button or T-shirt or donating money. Forty-six per cent of the adults surveyed said they volunteer their time, but they also take credit for inspiring their children to volunteer. The Harris Interactive survey was conducted in the United States between January 29 and February 2 among 2,003 adults. Sara Johnson, a teacher who advises the student service club at a private high school, says she has seen an increase of teen involvement in social causes since President Barack Obama was elected in November. "I think that kids are increasingly realizing how important it is," said Johnson, who teaches English at Illiana

Christian. Johnson, 29, said she saw a similar increase in involvement after Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast in 2005, and believes this generation of teens is more involved in charitable work than her generation was. The Harris Interactive survey found a quarter of teens have become more involved in charitable causes or organizations as a result of the economic downturn, but the economy has also led to cuts in pocket money, and has teens working more hours at a paying job. Unlike many public high schools across the nation, Illiana Christian does not require its students to clock public service hours. Senior Melissa Martin said some kids are too busy with other commitments like sports and music, but most of her classmates do volunteer. Alynn Woodson, director of volunteer engagement at Habitat for Humanity International, said she has noticed a new enthusiasm among teen volunteers for the Atlanta-based organization, which has had a structured youth program since 1987. Habitat for Humanity celebrates the 20th anniversary of its spring break program this year and is expecting over 12,000 youngsters to help build homes for low-income people around the nation. 11. In which paragraph does the author first mention the reason for more volunteers involved in social causes? A. In paragraph 2. B. In paragraph 3. C. In paragraph 5. D. In paragraph 6.12. According to the passage, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT ________________. A. more teens volunteer than work part time B. American teens do more charitable work than their parents

C. all schools require fixed public service hours for students D. the population of volunteers has increased in social causes since Barack Obama was elected 13. Which of the following is a reason for volunteers' population increase? A. The economic downturn. B. The cuts in pocket money. C. The requirements of the parents. D. The requirement of the school.14. When was there an increase of teens involved in charitable causes? A. Since President Barack Obama was elected in November. B. After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast in 2005. C. Between January 29 and February 2003. D. Both A and B.15. The followings are all acts to support charitable causes EXCEPT ________________. A. donating money to poor people B. wearing a volunteering T-shirt C. building homes for low-income people D. taking sports and music as commitments Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage or dialog. Volunteers can play an important role in the ESL (English as a second language) classroom. Teachers can use a volunteer as a classroom monitor. As teachers

circulate through class to monitor student progress during language activities, the volunteer does the same. He or she can check for accurate pronunciation, reading comprehension, accurate grammar and general comprehension of the activity. A volunteer can be a co-presenter in ESL classes. He or she can assist teachers in the presentation of new activities. For example, a volunteer can take a role in an English dialogue with teachers. If teachers are presenting a conversation to class, the volunteer can take the other part so that it creates better language environment for the students. The volunteer can also model the activity with teachers. If teachers want the students to do pair work, the volunteer can demonstrate how it should be done. It is best if teachers let the volunteer know exactly what they are looking for in advance. A volunteer can play the role of a pull-out group leader. A pull-out group is a group of similar ability students who work separately from the whole class for part of the class session. The groups can address special needs the students have in common. They can also provide more challenging work for higher level students and give students an opportunity to focus on skills like English conversation with a lot of feedback that teachers cannot always provide in a large group. Teachers can provide the volunteer with materials and detailed instructions for working with the group and a place to work. Here are some golden rules for using volunteers. First, clear communication is the key. Teachers need to give clear instructions and adequate materials to their volunteers. From the start, ask the volunteers what they want to get out of volunteering with the class and explain what the students need from a volunteer. Second, feedback! Volunteers need feedback on how he or she is doing. Many of them feel nervous about teaching. Also, teachers need feedback on how volunteer-led class activities go to find out student progress and to make sure the volunteer feels comfortable doing what he or she has been asked. 16. As a classroom monitor, what does a volunteer do? A. To monitor student progress during language activities. B. To organize new oral English. C. To take a role in an English dialogue with students.

D. To provide more challenging work for higher level students.17. According to the passage, the volunteers do all the following EXCEPT ________________. A. to check for accurate grammar and general comprehension of the activity B. to take a role in an English dialogue with teachers C. to give feedback to teacher on how students do activities D. to teach new knowledge to students18. The pronoun "them" (Para 5) most probably refers to ________________. A. volunteers B. teachers C. the class D. the other students19. The passage mainly tells us about ________________. A. what volunteers should do in the ESL classroom B. the rules for using volunteers in the ESL classroom C. the importance of volunteers in the ESL classroom D. the different roles volunteers play in the ESL classroom20. Which of the following is NOT a reason why teachers need feedback? A. To know how students do in classroom. B. To know whether volunteers led the activities. C. To find out whether students make progress.

D. To be sure volunteers are willing to do what the teacher has asked them to do. Part 1 Multiple choices 小题 得分 对错 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B A A D C B B C D B C C B D D A D A C B (每小题: 1 分; 满分:20 分) 我的答案 B A A D C B B C D A C C A D D A D A C B Subtotal: 18 客观


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