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薄冰高中英语语法之16·句子类型和句子成分

2015-02-14 06:22:27

和薄冰关于地点状语的表述,大家可以对号入座:  张道真《实用英语语法
和薄冰关于地点状语的表述,大家可以对号入座: 张道真《实用英语语法薄冰高中英语语法之16·句子类型和句子成分

薄冰高中英语语法之十五句子类型和句子成分主编薄 冰 庄志琳 葛炳芳 田绍慧实行主编山西教育出版社 2014 年最新版出 版 人 出版谋划 责任编辑雷俊林 苗补坤 张荣荣ISBN 978-7-5440-5630-4语法学习交流微平台纸介图书京东旗舰店纸介图书天猫旗舰店百度阅读手持媒体收费读

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售丨学英语,凭啥让我学语法吗???时常听到一些青年咨询道:学英语一定要学语法吗?语法应该怎么样学呢?我们 就这两个成绩简明地谈一点团体意见。

对中国先生来说,格外是成年人,我看是学点语法好。

语法,望文生义,乃是语 言的规律和法规。

学习语法,格外是一些差不多规律,至稀有下列几个益处: 第一 头探求。

第二 第三 第四 能够使你学得透些,由于经过语法对言语现象不只能够知其然,而 能够使你学得准些,由于语法规律一定是一条条准绳,能够用以权衡 语法不单能够引你入门,更能够引你入胜,使你慢慢眼界宽广,语 且能够知其因此然。

一句话能否准确。

感加深,从而使你的英语程度时常提高。

能够使你学得快些,由于已有现成的先人总结的规律,用不着你从丨那样应该如何学习语法呢?我感觉在学习语法进程中,应该留意下面几点: 第一 第二 第三 第四 第五 第六 流利性。

最终来 能够还会有人说,语法应该学,一定是太单调。

我的觉得是:扫尾有 点单调,过些时辰,就会像嚼橄榄似的,越学越有味了。

如若不信,请试试看。

差不多概念最严重。

在学习每个语法项目时,一定要把它的差不多概念 要大批地实际,大批地练习。

实际要包括听、说、读、写四个方面, 学习语法时,应多用比拟法。

如对动词时态、冠词、介词、名词的 要将语法规律与习气用法分开。

碰到习气用法,就不用钻牛角尖, 将一本语法书通读一遍,固然也不无益处。

但最好将它作为工具书, 有用英语语法只应是入门的导游,像一根拐棍一样。

英语抵达一定 搞清,牢记在心。

练习要着重说和写。

单、双数等较难的语法项目停止相互比拟,成效就比拟好。

停止白费的分析。

而习气用法在英语中则是大批地存在着的。

像词典一样地常常查阅,始能学得比拟细腻牢靠。

程度之后,就应将它扔掉。

最少不要让格外多语法条条充溢头脑,妨碍你说和写的全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售Unit 16 句 子 类 型 和 句 子 成 分句子是由词或词组(短语)依照一定的语法规章构成的,表达一个完整的意义。

在说话 时要用一定的语调,句与句之间要有一定的停顿。

在书写时句子末尾用标点符号,如句号、 咨询号、慨叹号等。

句首第一个字母要大写。

16-1 句子的种类和类型 [1] 句子的种类 (1) 叙说句 用以叙说理想。

包括一定句和否认句。

如: Tom Cruise was born on July 3,1962. It wasn't a Wednesday but a Tuesday. 汤姆·克鲁斯降生于 1962 年7月 3 日。

那一天不是星期三,而是星期二。

I don't care what she thinks. 我不在乎她想啥。

(2) 疑咨询句 用以提出疑咨询。

包括平常疑咨询句、特殊疑咨询句、反意疑咨询句和抉择疑咨询句。

如: —Did Tom Cruise finish senior high school? 汤姆·克鲁斯高中毕业了吗? —No, he didn't. 没有。

—He lives in California,doesn't he? 他住在加利福尼亚州,是吗? —Yes, he does. 是的。

—In the year 2002,did he produce two or three films? 2002 年,他拍照了两部依然三部电 影? —Three. They are:Cold Mountain,2002 Space Station and Minority Report. 三部: 《冷山》 《2002 年空间站》和《少数民族报导》 。

Where did you go yesterday? 你昨天到哪里去了? (3) 祈使句 用以显示命令、要求等。

如: Guess what film he produced in 1999. 猜猜看,1999 年他拍了啥电影? Have a good sleep and think it over. 好好睡一觉,再仔细琢磨一下。

(4) 慨叹句 用以显示各种激烈的感情。

如: Mission Impossible II was one of the films he did in 1999. What an exciting film it was! How I like it! 其中一部一定是 1999 年的《职业特工队 2》 ( 《碟中谍 2》 ) 。

这是一部格外安慰的片子! 我是多么地爱慕这部影片啊! What a coincidence to meet in San Francisco! 在旧金山见面真是一种巧合。

[2] 句子的类型 (1) 简明句 由一个主语部分和一个谓语部分组成。

如: He studies very hard in the school. 他在学校学习格外努力。

The cause of the fire was a cigarette end. 这次火灾是由一根烟头形成的。

(2) 并列句 全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售由两个或两个以上的分句组成。

如: Cotton is falling in price,and buyers hold off. 棉花正在降价,可卖主仍优柔寡断。

He is rich while I'm poor. 他富有而我穷。

(3) 复合句 由主句和其他从句组成。

如: I have to hurry to deposit this money before the bank closes. 我得赶在银行关门前把这笔 钞票存起来。

I didn't come to school yesterday because I was ill. 昨天我没有上学由于我病了。

(4) 并列复合句 含有复合句的并列句。

如: The ad said that the coat was on sale for $ 20,but it was actually $ 22. 广告上说这件外衣卖 20 美元,可它实践上是 22 美元。

I asked a man who has a wife and three children who did the cooking in his house and he replied that whoever came home from work first did it. 我咨询一个有妻子和 3 个小孩的人,他家谁做饭;他答复说,谁先下班回来,谁就做饭。

16-2 句子成分 每个句子基本上由各个句子成分组成的。

句子成分有主语(Subject) 、谓语(Predicate) 、 宾语(O b j ect ) 、表语( Predicative ) 、定语( Attributive ) 、状语( Adverbial )和同位语 (Apposition) 。

其中主语和谓语是要紧成分,其他是要紧成分。

它们平常由虚词充任,如名 词、动词、描画词、数词、代词及副词等。

虚词在句中只起衔接作用,它平常不能作句子成 分,如冠词、介词、连词和慨叹词等。

如: That girl is doing her homework now. 定语 主语 谓语 定语 宾语 状语 这是各种句子成分比拟完整的简明句。

[1] 主语 主语是句子的主体,阐明句子讲的是谁或许啥状况。

可作主语的有:名词、代词、数 词、名词性或名词化的词、词组或短语(如动词不定式、动名词、从句等) 。

如: All roads lead to Rome. 条条大路通罗马。

It's never too late to learn. 亡羊补牢,为时未晚。

We like our school very much. 我们格外爱慕我们的学校。

Two plus two is four. 2+2=4。

“The” is an article. The 是个冠词。

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy,wealthy,and wise. 早睡早起,使人富有、聪明、安康。

How to do it well is an important question. 如何把这件事做好是一个严重的成绩。

[2] 谓语 谓语用来阐明主语的举措、行径、特征或状况,平常由动词或动词短语承担。

谓语动词 具有各种时态、语态及语气的改变。

(1) 动词(单词或短语)作谓语。

如: His face brightened up when he was told to have won the first prize. 当他得知他得了头奖时脸上显露了忧色。

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纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售I seldom go to the cinema. 我格外少去电影院。

The foreign guests have already left. 外宾曾经走了。

I shall stay in Europe for a week. 我将在欧洲待一个月。

(2) 连系动词 + 表语。

如: They have been here for several days. 他们在那个地点曾经有好几天了。

We are students. 我们是先生。

Li Ming fell ill last week. 上个星期李明病倒了。

[3] 宾语 宾语用来标明举措行径或介词所支配的对象, 是举措的同意者。

宾语常用于及物动词之 后。

可作宾语的词语有:名词、代词(宾格) 、动名词、不定式、数词或从句等。

如: We study English at school. 我们在学校学习英语。

I haven't seen him for a long time. 我良久没有见到他了。

We need five instead of two. 我们需求 5 个,而不是两个。

Let me see what you have got there. 我们看看你在那儿弄到了啥。

He enjoys listening to the music. 他爱慕听音乐。

She refused to accept my gift. 她推托接纳我的礼物。

[4] 宾语的种类 (1) 直截了当宾语:显示举措的同意者或结果,通常指物。

如: Lend me your dictionary,please. 请把你的字典借给我。

My boyfriend bought me a big birthday cake. 我的男好友给我买了生日大蛋糕。

Our teacher showed us his collections of stamps. 我们教员给我们看他的邮票集子。

(2) 直截了当宾语:显示举措所向的或所为的人或物,通常指人。

直截了当宾语也能够放在直截了当宾 语之后,这时,直截了当宾语前要加介词 to 或 for。

加介词 to 的动词有: give bring take hand lend pass read tell send show teach write do 等 加介词 for 的动词有: fetch find pay sing buy choose find get make 等。

This chemical factory is doing the environment great harm. =This chemical factory is doing great harm to the environment. 这家化工场对环境形成格外大的危害。

Shall I fetch you your hat? =Shall I fetch your hat for you? 要我替你把帽子拿来吗? (3) 复合宾语:用以补充阐明宾语的身份或状况的词或短语叫宾语补足语。

宾语与宾语补 足语一齐就叫做复合宾语。

它们在法规上有主谓关系。

假设直截了当宾语是不定式、动名词或从 句,常用 it 作方式宾语。

如: They elected him their monitor. 他们选他当班长。

(代词+名词) I found the baby always happy. 我发现那个婴儿总是格外愉快的。

(名词+描画词) I find it easy to sing a song. 我发现唱歌是复杂的。

(it 作方式宾语) 留意: 能在复合宾语中用 it 作为方式宾语的词通常有:think,find,consider,judge,feel, make,take 等。

如: 全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售They thought it right to do this test. 他们原感觉做这项试验是对的。

We find it necessary to master a foreign language. 我们感觉掌握一门外语是有必要的。

(4 介词宾语:位于介词前面的宾语。

如: He walked to the office. 他朝办公室走去。

[5] 宾语补足语 宾语补足语是指及物动词后的,用以补充阐明宾语的身份、状况等的词或短语。

如: Electricity can make a machine run. 电能使机械运转。

We consider / think the answer (to be) correct. 我们感觉那个答案是准确的。

这类常用的及物动词有: make consider cause see find call get have let 等。

可作宾语补足语的有:名词(包括名词性物主代词) 、描画词及其短语、不定式及其短 语、过去分词及其短语、as 引出的宾语补足语、介词短语、副词和从句。

如: Her father named her Kate. 她父亲给她取名凯特。

They painted their house white. 他们把房子漆成白色。

You mustn't force him to lend his money to you. 你不能强迫他借钞票给你。

They found Guilin greatly changed. 他们发现桂林改变格外大。

We take English as a useful tool for everyday work. 我们把英语当作日常任务中的一种有用的工具。

We found everything in the kitchen in good order. 我们发现厨房内每件东西都放得有条不紊。

Let the enemy in. 让朋友出去。

We will soon make our community what your community is now. 我们不大会儿就要把我们的 社区停顿成你们目前那个模样。

[6] 表语 表语是阐明主语身份、职业、性质、状况或特征的句子成分,补充阐明主语的意义,因 此, 它也叫做主语补足语。

表语平常用在连系动词前面。

连系动词除了 be 之外, 还有 become (成为) ,look(看起来) ,turn(变成) ,grow(变成) ,go(变成) ,seem(或许) ,appear (或许、显得) ,feel(摸起来) ,sound(听起来) ,smell(闻起来)等等。

可作表语的有: 名词、描画词、代词、分词、动名词、动词不定式、数词、介词短语、副词和从句。

如: This is the student whose name is Wang Hua. 这一定是那个名叫王华的先生。

Our teacher is very strict with us. 我们的教员对我们格外严厉。

What's up? 出啥事啦? Two and twenty is twenty-two. 2+20=22。

My mobile phone is out of order. 我的移动电话出缺点了。

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

The problem is whom we can get to replace her. 成绩是我们能找到谁去替代她呢。

He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与 10 年前一样。

[7] 定语 定语用来限制、修饰名词或代词。

可充任定语的有:描画词、代词、数词、名词、分词、 动名词、介词短语、副词及从句等。

如: Do you have any red ink? 请咨询你有没有红墨水? There are over a thousand people in the park. 公园里有一千多人。

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纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售He is an interesting man. 他是个异常幽默的人。

Would you tell me your card number,please? 请告知我你的卡号,好吗? He has fixed the broken bike himself. 他自己修缮了自行车。

The teachers are talking about the teaching plan. 教员们在商榷教学方案。

Have you got anything to say? 你有没有啥要说的(话)? Can you see the car downstairs? 你能看见楼下的小汽车吗? He was the one who succeeded in the experiment. 他一定是成功地完成了试验的人。

[8] 状语 状语是用来修饰动词、副词、描画词或整个句子的,阐明地点、时刻、缘由、目的、结 果、条件、妥协、方向、程度、方式、伴同等状况。

能够充任状语的有:副词、描画词短语、 名词短语、分词短语、介词短语或从句。

如: He drove his car carefully. 他开车异常小心。

Suddenly the boy found his pen. 那男孩猛然间找到了钢笔。

In that sense,you are surely wrong. 从那种意义上讲,你一定错了。

He is very Quick to change his mind. 他脑子转得快,立即改变了办法。

To buy a computer,I need money. 我需求钞票,以便买个电脑。

Seeing his mother,the baby burst into tears. 一看到他的母亲,小孩就大哭起来。

When our part of the earth turns away from the sun,it is night. 当我们所在的部分地球背着太阳转动时,一定是夜晚。

Second and most importantly,you must set off with a gun in the night. 第二点,也是最严重的一点,你深夜开赴务必带着枪。

[9] 同位语 在一个句子中, 一个名词或代词前面有时还跟有另一个名词或代词, 或相当于名词的短 语或从句,用以阐明前者的内容性质和状况,前者和后者的句法功用相反,因此,我们把后 者视为前者的同位语。

同位语是用来对名词(或代词)做进一步讲解的。

它能够是单词、短 语或从句。

同位语从句是名词从句的一种,置于某些名词之后。

罕见的名词有:fact,doubt, idea,news,hope,indication,decision,possibility,assumption,suggestion,Question 等。

这类从句通常由 that 引导,有时也可由 what,why,whether,when 等引导。

在阅读和翻译 的时辰, 要特殊留意的是同位语和它的本位语联系的状况。

这种状况通常是为了坚持句子的 颠簸而浮现的。

在翻译的时辰,这种联系成分的译法比拟灵敏,可将其提早,也可不提早, 还能够添加“即” ,或是用冒号、破折号等分开。

如: Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment,one that I will always treasure. 那样多年后与我的叔叔重逢是一个难以忘记的生活——一个我将永久顾惜的生活。

The youngest boy,Peter,refused to accept the money. 那个最小的男孩彼得推托接纳那 笔钞票。

Football, his only interest in life,has brought him many friends. 足球——他性命中唯独的爱慕, 让他结交了格外多好友。

We four were greatly touched to hear the old man's story. 听了老人的故事, 我们 4 团体都格外受感激。

That's her habit,reading in bed. 躺在床上看书是她的习气。

The Question whether to confess or not troubled the girl. 全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售能否要去忏悔,那个成绩困扰着那个女孩。

He gave orders that the work (should) be started immediately. 他收回指示要立即末尾工 作。

留意: 介词 of 惹起的短语也能够充任同位语。

它能够显示与代词、数词、地点名词、年、月、 日、年龄等名词, 以及长度、速度、分量和价值等名词同位的成分。

如: The city of Beijing is the capital of China. 北京是中国的首都。

This bus is running at a speed of 50 miles an hour. 这辆公车正以每小时 50 英里的速度行 驶。

It's now the month of September. 如今是 9 月。

16-3 句子的差不多构造 句子成分在句子中的陈列,构成不同的句型构造。

句子的差不多构造分 5 种类型。

[1] 主语+不及物动词 (1) 主语 + 谓语(不及物动词) 。

如: The students are listening. 先生们正在听。

The bell has rung. 铃声响过了。

(2) 主语 + 谓语(不及物动词) + 状语。

如: He looked carefully. 他仔细地看。

The sun rises in the west every morning. 太阳每天从西方升起。

[2] 主语+及物动词+宾语 此句型中的谓语动词是及物动词,其后常跟名词、代词、动词的-ing 方式或动词不定式 等。

如: Do you like apples? 你爱慕苹果吗? I finished reading the text. 我读完了课文。

He decided to buy a computer. 他决策买一台电脑。

但应留意:不及物动词与介词构成一个短语动词相当于及物动词时,其后也可跟宾语。

如: Ann is waiting for Kate at the school gate. 安正在校门口等凯特。

[3] 主语+系动词+表语 此句型中的谓语动词为连系动词,作表语成分的有描画词、名词、代词、如今分词、动 名词、过去分词等。

罕见的系动词有: be feel taste smell seem look get become turn 等。

如: She is a music teacher. 她是一位音乐教员。

The fish smells terrible. It must be bad. 这条鱼格外难闻。

一定是蜕变了。

The story is interesting. 那个故事挺幽默的。

This news sounds disappointing. 这则旧事听起来令人绝望。

The window got broken. 窗户破了。

[4] 主语+及物动词+直截了当宾语+直截了当宾语 此句型中的及物动词后跟双宾语,指人的宾语叫直截了当宾语,指物的宾语叫直截了当宾语,通 常状况下直截了当宾语在前,直截了当宾语在后,有时也可把直截了当宾语置于直截了当宾语后,此刻间接宾 全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

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如: Uncle Li bought me a birthday present. =Uncle Li bought a birthday present for me. 李叔叔给我买了一个生日礼物。

Please pass him a cup of tea. =Please pass a cup of tea to him. 请递给他一杯茶。

He brought me a dictionary. =He brought a dictionary for / to me. 他给我带来了一本词典。

若直截了当宾语是人称代词时,通常状况下将其置于直截了当宾语之前,如: Please give them to me. 请把它们给我。

[5] 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 此句型中的宾语后需跟上宾语补足语意义才完整,宾语和宾语补足语合称为复合宾语。

罕见的用作宾语补足语的有名词、描画词、动词不定式、动词的-ing 方式、动词的 -ed 方式、介词短语等。

如: We call him Tom for short. 我们简称他为汤姆。

It's very hot here. We'd better keep the windows open. 这儿格外热。

我们最好让窗子开着。

He told us to keep Quiet in the hospital. 他告知我们在医院里要坚持沉寂。

I often hear her sing in the next room. 我常常听到她在隔壁唱歌。

We found a man lying on the ground. 我们发现一个男人躺在地上。

I'll keep the words in my mind. 我将记住这些话。

留意: help 后跟不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式既可带 to,也可不带 to。

如: My father often helps me (to) study English. 我父亲常常帮我学习英语。

16-4 单元练习 抉择最佳答案填空。

(1) Is this ______ looking for? A. you were B. that you were C. what were you D. what you were (2) We shall ______ forget the advice of our teacher. A. always not B. not always C. never D. forever not (3) Which girl ______ ? A. John likes B. like John C. does John like D. do John like (4) How ______ have you been to America? A. much time B. many times C. long ago D. long for (5) —Let's go for a film show. What do you say? — ______ . A. No, I wouldn't B. I didn't say anything C. Yes, I would D. All right (6) ______ the story or won't you? 全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售A. Will you tell B. Do you tell C. Can you tell D. Would you tell (7) —What sort of car shall I get? — ______ ! A. Get no English B. Get none English C. Don't get any one English D. Don't get an English one (8) Our classmates played best on their own ground, ______ ? A. didn't it B. did it C. didn't they D. did they (9) Please give me your honest opinion, ______ ? A. do you B. will you C. is it D. have you (10) You'd like that, ______ ? A. don't you B. didn't you C. hadn't you D. wouldn't you (11) ______ wonderful the Great Wall is! A. What B. How C. What a D. How a (12) —Hi. Haven't seen you for ages!You look fine! — ______ . You look well, too. A. Oh, no B. Thanks C. Great D. Just fine (13) —What do you want to do next fall? —Next what? I'm sorry ______ . A. I don't quite follow you B. I know only a little English C. it's just impossible to understand D. I didn't know what was happening (14) —You haven't been to Beijing, have you? — ______ . How I wish to go there! A. Yes, I have B. Yes, I haven't C. No, I have D. No, I haven't (15) It was about 600 years ago ______ the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. A. that B. until C. before D. when (16) It was only with the help of the local guide ______ . A. was the mountain climber rescued B. that the mountain climber was rescued C. when the mountain climber was rescued D. the mountain climber was rescued (17) ______ at the door before entering please. A. Knocked B. To knock C. Knocking D. Knock (18) ______ can you expect to get a pay rise. A. With hard work B. Although work hard C. Only with hard work D. Now that he works hard 【参考答案】 (1) D (2) C (3) C (4) B (5) D (6) A (7) D (8) C (9) B (10) D (11) B (12) B (13) A (14) D (15) A (16) B (17) D (18) C全国优秀滞销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书出售打破 220 万册! 依照课改周全修订第四版条理更清楚,针对性更强,重点更突出!

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